“In God we trust; all others must bring data.” -W. Edwards Deming
Incappo in un estratto di “For a new liberty“ di Murray Rothbard, in cui si cerca di spiegare come, “naturalmente”, in una società senza stato, sboccerebbe una versione retribuitva della pena meno violenta di quella oggi applicata, e fondata sul concetto di risarcimento. A supporto di tutto ciò si cita come, nel paradiso alto-medioevale, prima che lo stato rimettesse le sue manacce nelle dispute tra individui, tale era il concetto di pena effettivamente venuto a stabilirsi. Riporto l’estratto:
In the libertarian world, however, the purpose of imprisonment and punishment will undoubtedly be different; there will be no “district attorney” who presumes to try a case on behalf of a nonexistent “society,” and then punishes the criminal on “society’s” behalf. In that world the prosecutor will always represent the individual victim, and punishment will be exacted to redound to the benefit of that victim. Thus, a crucial focus of punishment will be to force the criminal to repay — make restitution to — the victim. One such model was a practice in colonial America. Instead of incarcerating, say, a man who had robbed a farmer in the district, the criminal was coercively indentured out to the farmer — in effect, “enslaved” for a term — there to work for the farmer until his debt was repaid. Indeed, during the Middle Ages, restitution to the victim was the dominant concept of punishment. Only as the State grew more powerful did the governmental authorities — the kings and the barons — encroach more and more into the compensation process, increasingly confiscating more of the criminal’s property for themselves and neglecting the hapless victim. And as the emphasis shifted from restitution to punishment for abstract crimes “committed against the State,” the punishments exacted by the State upon the wrongdoer became more severe.
Se si resta alla storia dell’alto medioevo aglo-sassone, e se fossi un eminente storico (ed economista, e filosofo, e teorico politico) almeno quanto Rothbard, solleverei alcuni punti, basati sulla History of the english law before the time of Edward I di Pollock e Maitland (vol. I, pp. 51-53):
Ma forse sbaglierei.